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Terms in this set (35)
check digits
identification numbers contain this to help catch data entry and transmission errors
congruent
a mod m is ______________ to b
remainder
b is the _____________ when a is divided by m
single-digit error
occurs when an incorrect digit is entered (aka substitution)
adjacent transposition error
occurs when adjacent digits are entered in reverse order
jump transposition error
occurs when digits that are separated by another digit are entered in reverse order
sum of the first 10 digits mod 9
check digit of a USPS money order
identification number mod 7
check digit of airline tickets, UPS packages, and avis and national rental car companies
geographical region
first digit of a zip code
state region
second and third digits of a zip code
local delivery area
fourth and fifth digits of a zip code
binary system
system for representing data with only two symbols
bar code
a binary system made up of a series of dark bars and light spaces that represent characters
postnet code
used to encode ZIP+4 numbers
-each digit is represented by 5 vertical bars (2 long, 3 short)
QR code
a special bar code that encodes much more information and are popular in print media
social security number
the first three digits of this number tell the state where the application was filed
bit
short for binary digit; the smallest unit of information on a computer
-holds one of two possible values, typically 0 and 1
byte
8 bits
parity
refers to whether a number is odd or even
binary linear code
a set of words composed of 0's and 1's that has a message and parity check sums appended to the message
code words
strings of a binary linear code
decoding
the process of determining the message you were sent
distance
the number of positions in which the strings differ
nearest neighbor decoding method
decodes a received message as the code word that agrees with the message in the most positions (has the smallest distance)
weight
the minimum number of 1's that occur among all non-zero code words
data compression
process of encoding data so that the most frequently occurring data are represented by the fewest symbols
compression algorithm
converts data from an easy-to-use format to one that is more compact
uncompression algorithm
converts the compressed information back to its original format
delta encoding
uses the first value and differences in one value to the next to encode data
huffman coding
a way to assign shorter code words to those characters that occur more often
encryption
the process of coding information to prevent unauthorized use
decryption
the process of decoding the encrypted message to get back to the original message
cryptography
the study of making and breaking secret codes
caesar cipher
shifts the letters of the alphabet by a fixed number of positions
decimation cipher
multiplies the position of each letter by a fixed number k (called the key) and then uses modular arithmetic
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